At the most basic level, BIM Level 0 (Low Collaboration) uses conventional two-dimensional (2D) drafting to produce the design.
BIM Level 1 (Partial Collaboration) usually involves a combination of three-dimensional (3D) CAD for concept work and 2D for drafting for statutory approval documentation and preparing production information.
BIM Level 2 (Full Collaboration) offers collaborative working between all consultants with individual 3D models produced by each design discipline, which are then assembled to form a “federated” model prior to the issue of information for tender and construction.
BIM Level 3 (Full Integration) uses a fully integrated single model, stored in a database accessible by all of the design team consultants.
This single model will allow data to be used for construction, fabrication and facility management purposes. This can enable open collaboration with the stadium operations team and facilitate building lifecycle management.
The name, requirements and deliverables for the different design stages of a stadium project can vary to some degree in different parts of the world.
The various design phases are generally classed as Brief, Concept, Definition, Design, Construction, Handover and Operation, and as the project advances, the amount of information produced and level of detail increases. Using BIM to deliver the stadium design will require agreement right at the very start of the project on the various levels of information (LOI) needed during each design stage. This agreement is usually captured as a Model Production and Delivery Table (MPDT) or similar document by the key consultants within the design team.
For smaller stadiums, the use of CAD during the design stages is desirable with a recommended BIM maturity of Level 1.
For larger, more complex stadiums, a higher level of BIM utilisation should be implemented, with a recommended BIM maturity of Level 2 or Level 3.
Further dimensions can be incorporated into the BIM environment of a stadium project. 4D BIM (Construction Sequencing) integrates time into the model and links directly to the stadium’s construction programme. 5D BIM (Costs) adds project cost data to the physical elements modelled. 6D BIM (Project Lifecycle Information) can be used to assess the whole life cost of a stadium, focusing on the operational and maintenance costs of each component within the stadium. This would require input and knowledge from the stadium operations team.