6.2 Media and Broadcast
Main User Groups


05 min. reading time

The needs of broadcast and media groups are a fundamental part of most stadium projects, as the dissemination of content and other communication from the stadium is an increasingly important part of football’s business model.

Broadcast refers to the capture and dissemination of TV content, whilst media refers to members of the press who report on matches for media organisations. Stadium broadcast and media spaces are defined by the technical services that allow them to operate, however, it is the routes that players, the media and broadcasters take through these spaces that drive their layout and spatial needs.

All media areas should be fully accessible for all users. Wheelchair accessible media spaces should be provided within (or as close as possible to) the media tribune.

Stadiums should be designed with an appropriate level of broadcast infrastructure for the matches they will host.

This section introduces a range of broadcast facilities, from camera positions to the external broadcast compound, as well as media facilities such as the press conference room.

Figure 6.2.1
Media and broadcast circulation routes


The objective of all camera positions is to provide an optimal filming position for the broadcaster whilst being integrated into seating areas so as not to impact spectator sightlines. The number of camera positions required will vary depending on the requirements of the competition being hosted. The stadium design should allow for the requirements of the competition(s) it intends to host on a regular basis.

Camera position

The space required for a camera must extend beyond the dimensions of a TV camera and its tripod. Space should be provided for the camera operator along with access routes that aid the easy installation and removal of equipment. A standard single camera platform is 2m x 2m.

The main camera platform should be located on the halfway line in the main stand and should be positioned to ensure cameras are not affected by the angle of the sun during matches (refer to Section 2.2). The main camera platform will provide space for several cameras, and the exact number should be determined by the competition(s) being hosted.

For larger stadiums, the specific requirements of local broadcasters should be considered, including defining the need for speciality camera systems such as spider-cams suspended from roof structures and boom cameras (e.g. crane or pole cameras) located adjacent to the field of play.

The degree of permanent cabling within a stadium will depend on the matchday operational plan, however, flexibility of design can be achieved by providing ample connection points throughout the stadium.

Figure 6.2.2
Basic camera positions


Stadiums should provide positions for players, managers and other team officials to be interviewed following matches. These dedicated positions should be placed along the route that the interviewees will follow from the pitch to the dressing room and as they leave the stadium.

Super Flash interview position

The first opportunity for players and team officials to be interviewed is in the “Super Flash” interview position. This is a temporary location on the pitch or auxiliary zone immediately after the match has finished, and is used by a mobile camera team and interviewer.

The first formal interview opportunity occurs in, or immediately beside, the players’ tunnel in flash interview positions. These are spaces that are connected to the broadcast infrastructure and offer the ability to interview multiple players quickly and efficiently.

A flash interview space needs to provide a backdrop for sponsor logos, and a floor area of 2.0m x 2.5m for each position. Consideration should be given to the expansion (or reduction) of the number of flash interview spaces on a match-by-match basis. These spaces will be used for short, instant interviews but should provide enough space for broadcast cameras, personnel, cabling and temporary lighting installations.


The mixed zone is a space that allows the media and broadcasters to interview players as they leave the field of play or after the match. The scale of this space can vary significantly depending on the size of the stadium and the matches being hosted, however, there are commonalities in all scenarios. The mixed zone is typically designed in such a way that it can be extended into adjacent circulation areas if a larger area is required for specific events.

The mixed zone can be operated in two ways:

2. Located between the dressing rooms and players’ exit point, for use after the players have changed after the match and are ready to leave the stadium

1. Located between the flash interview positions and the dressing rooms, for use immediately after the match

Figure 6.2.3
Typical mixed zone segregation (prior to player departure)

Figure 6.2.4
Alternative mixed zone segregation (for use immediately post-match)

The type of mixed zone used will be defined by the requirements of the competition being hosted.

The mixed zone should ensure segregation of players and all other user groups within the space and ensure that the access routes for media and broadcasters do not cross any routes the players will take.


Larger stadiums should provide high-quality studio spaces for television and radio interviews with players and team officials. The number of studios will be dependent on the size of the stadium, the types of matches that will be played there, and the type of content that is most needed for the local area.

Presentation studio

Where TV studios are provided, they should provide space for multiple people to be interviewed at the same time. Along with the interviewer, camera operators and support staff, a room with at least 25m² of usable space is typically required. All studios within the stadium should have power, lighting and ventilation installations that take account of the extra electrical and data connectivity loads required in the rooms and respect the acoustic constraints needed to ensure that high-quality recorded content can be captured.

In larger stadiums, presentation studios are often provided to allow broadcasters to host coverage of the match. Where provided, these should offer the same technical qualities as the TV studios in a space that has a view of the seating bowl and the pitch as the backdrop for broadcasting. The glazing should, where possible, be large sheets with minimal joints and be angled or treated to prevent excessive light reflection into the cameras. In such cases, these presentation studios are often used more intensely than TV studios.

Stadiums should also consider pitchside presentation positions for use prior to the match, typically along the edge of the pitch in front of the main stand. These are often used regardless of the provision of presentation studios.

Spectator seating directly in front of the presentation studio should be designed to ensure that spectators do not interfere with the view from the studio.

Commentary positions


A media tribune is the area that contains seating for broadcast commentators and media to watch the match. It should be provided as close as possible to the centre of the main stand, overlooking the field of play. The number of spaces that are needed will depend on the match being hosted, and these provisions should guide projects from the inception.

Space is required for:
• Written press positions with desks
• Commentary positions
• Written press positions without desks
• Observers
• Photographers

Whilst it is common for commentators to be in open positions, in certain regions it is important to include enclosed booths for radio commentators.

Accessible spaces for wheelchair users should be provided within the media tribune. These can be configured to facilitate different functional groups rather than being dedicated accessible positions for each of the above functional groups.

In larger stadiums, the media tribune can be connected to the stadium IT infrastructure via the commentary control room (CCR). This is a back-of-house space that collects cabling in a central location before it travels vertically and horizontally through the building to the broadcast compound.

Access to seating within the media tribune should be considered as these seats are accessed throughout the match.

Media tribune


Stadiums should provide space to allow outside broadcast (OB) vehicles to connect to the in-stadium infrastructure and transmit matches to the wider broadcast network. The scale of the broadcast compound varies with the type of match being played, but are usually at least 300m². For major matches, the space required will extend considerably beyond this, up to approximately 2,000m². Cable routes between the broadcast compound and the stadium should be carefully designed to ensure crossover with spectator and vehicle routes is avoided or, as a minimum, controlled.

Broadcast compound

The broadcast compound should be located adjacent to the main stand as this will minimise the cable lengths required between the compound and the cameras. The broadcast compound should consider the locations for any satellite uplink vehicles as these will require a direct view to the broadcast satellites that are positioned over the equator.


Considering the wider media user group rather than just broadcast users, access to any media areas should be segregated from other user groups if possible. Horizontal and vertical circulation through the stadium should be provided, especially for photographers who will be carrying a large amount of equipment which makes any stepped access extremely difficult.

Dedicated working areas for media representatives, including journalists and commentators, should be included in stadiums. The size of this space will be determined by local factors but should be located near media entrances and other media areas such as the media tribune, press conference room and mixed zone. This should include desk working space, a refreshment area, and access to the host club or competition media representatives.


The press conference room is a space for formal staged interviews and should be included in all stadiums. In smaller stadiums, this could be a multi-functional space that is arranged for matchdays only. This should be located on the same level as the player dressing room areas and mixed zone with easy access from broadcast and media areas. The press conference room can be combined with the media working area if set up in classroom style. A dedicated entrance should be provided for players.

The scale of the space will depend on the size of the stadium, however, all press conference rooms should provide the following:

• Seating for members of the press (with power if combined with the media working area). This seating should be facing the head table (podium)
• Internet connectivity (WiFi)
• A podium with a desk surface, raised above the floor by 400-500mm for 4-6 people to sit behind whilst giving interviews. The wall behind this podium should be left clear to allow interchangeable backdrops to be displayed, depending on the competition
• A camera platform at the rear of the room, raised above the floor to ensure unobstructed views of the podium and interviewees, ideally of the same height as the head table (podium). The ability to connect from the platform to the stadium broadcast infrastructure is an advantage
• Lighting for the head table (podium) to a level suitable for broadcast cameras. This could be provided on a temporary basis for matchdays only

Where interpretation services are required, these are typically now provided remotely, therefore dedicated space within the stadium is not usually required.


The needs of matchday photographers should be assessed in the design of stadiums that will host high-profile matches.

Photographers should be provided with a dedicated space within the stadium that includes lockers and working space. In larger stadiums, this space may also provide camera storage/repair services.

Photographers working pitchside, between the LED perimeter boards and the front row of seats, require power and data connection points that are accessible close by. These connection points should be protected from rain, humidity and pitch irrigation systems. Photographers in more flexible locations should be provided with spaces from which they can work inside the seating bowl, including dedicated media tribune photographer positions.

As photographers will capture content at all stages of a matchday, facilities should be provided for them in other media spaces such as the mixed zone and press conference room.

Pitchside photographers